In Aviation today it is clear to everybody that important Systems are always having a Backup, that Wings have Flaps and so on. But these things weren’T there from the beginng. They came through Research.
In the early Days there were many crashes as engineers did not know much about Aerodynamics and even though not about how to handle it. So the Engineers did what every Engineer does – they sorted the Problems out and tried to find a Solution.
A German Industrial was a Pioneer in that Research – Hugo Junkers.
We all know the famous Junkers JU-52. But as historical as the Ju-52 is the Ju-F13 (the worlds very first civil All-Metal-Plane, built in 1919). There are still 5 of this Type, all in a Museum. Since 2016 there is a Replica. What’s so special about that Type: This Plane was the first worldwide doing regular Passenger-Flights – the beginning of the. It was the first Plane ever having a heated Passenger Cabin. And for her time she set an altitude Record – even tgough the Pilots were sitting outside.
There were many more Types of Planes that he built. Here’s a List of all the Types he built:
F 13 | Ju 13 | K 16 | A 20 | G 23 | F 24 | G 24 | A 25 | T 26 | T 29 | G 31 | A 32 | W 33 | W 34 | A 35 | G 38 | Ju 46 | A 48 | Ju 49 | A 50 | Ju 52/1m | Ju 52/3m | Ju 60 | Ju 160 | Ju 86 | Ju 90
J 2 | J 4 (J.I) | J 9 (D.I) | J 10 (CL.I) | J 11 | Ju 20 | Ju 21 | H 21 | K 30 | K 37 | K 39 | R 42 | K 43 | K 47 | K 51/Ki 20 | K 53 | Ju 86 | Ju 87 | Ju 88 | Ju 90 | Ju 188 | Ju 288 | Ju 388 | Ju 488 | Ju 89 | Ju 248 | Ju 252 | Ju 322 | Ju 352 | Ju 287 | Ju 290 | Ju 390
Prototypes and Projects
J 1 | J 3 | J 7 | J 8 | J 12 | J 15 | J 1000 | T 19 | T 21 | T 22 | T 23 | T 27 | S 36 | EF 61 | Ju 49 | Ju 85 | EF 100 | EF 126 | EF 127 | EF 128 | EF 131 | EF 140 | EF 150 | Ju 187/287 |EF 009
But who was that man that prepared the way for the modern Aviation like nobody else?
Born Februar 3rd 1859 in Rheydt (Part of the City of Mönchegladbach) he founded the Company Junkers & Co. in 1895 in the German City Dessau. Even though he was the owner of Junkers Motorenbau GmbH und Junkers Flugzeugwerk AG until 1932. In the beginning known for constructing Gas Water Heaters he also was Teacher, Scientist, Engineer and Industrial. In these times he became fundamental knowledge about Engineering and building Planes like all-metal-construction and wavy Structures.
Besides his Company was also producing Plane Engines. He founded the Airline Junkers Luftverkehr AG. In 1926, due to financial Problems as well on the Pressure of the Government, they merged with Deutsche Aero Lloyd.
The new Company’s Name: Luft Hansa.
His greatest Competitor in the Civil Aviation for the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean was the much younger Dornier. While he favorised Waterplanes, Junkers focused on Landplanes instead. Dornier offered him a Partnership, but Junkers rejected.
In 1928 he made the first East-West Atlantic Crossing with a Junkers W 33, piloted by Hermann Köhl, Ehrenfried Günther Freiherr von Hünefeld and James Fitzmaurice.
Due to the World Economy Crisis the company went into financial trouble in 1932. As a Democrat he stood in the Way of the National Socialists (also known as Nazis), so Hugo Junkers had been dispossessed in 1933 and was getting banned from the City of Dessau.
He moved to Bayrischzell in Bavaria where he died two years later on his 76th Birthday.
For more Information about Hugo Junkers check out the English Wikipedia-Informations.
Title Image: Von Markus Kress, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18391835